A new study at the University of Manitoba aimed to find out the most effective dietary programs for preventing mortality and major heart disease events in patients at increased risk of heart disease.
The researchers conducted a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials and used a network meta-analysis approach to compare the results of various dietary programs.
The study included patients who were at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and compared different dietary programs with minimal intervention (such as a healthy diet brochure) or alternative programs with at least nine months of follow-up.
The programs could also include exercise, behavioral support, and other secondary interventions such as drug treatment.
The results of the study showed that out of the seven named dietary programs that were evaluated (low-fat, Mediterranean, very low fat, modified fat, combined low fat and low sodium, Ornish, and Pritikin), the Mediterranean and low-fat dietary programs were found to be the most effective in reducing the risk of all-cause mortality, heart mortality, stroke, and non-fatal myocardial infarction.
The researchers found that the absolute effects of both the Mediterranean and low-fat dietary programs were more pronounced for patients who were at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
In other words, these programs were more effective for patients who were at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
It is important to note that there were no significant differences between the Mediterranean and low-fat dietary programs for mortality or non-fatal myocardial infarction.
The study also found that the other five named dietary programs generally had little or no benefit compared to the minimal intervention.
In conclusion, the study provides evidence that dietary programs promoting Mediterranean and low-fat diets, with or without physical activity or other interventions, are effective in reducing the risk of mortality and major cardiovascular events in patients at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
These findings could help healthcare professionals in designing and recommending appropriate dietary programs for patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.
The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern that is typically followed in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, such as Greece, Italy, and Spain.
It is characterized by the high consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, fish, and healthy fats such as olive oil while limiting the consumption of red meat and processed foods.
A modified fat diet is a type of dietary program that aims to reduce the intake of saturated and trans fats, which are considered to be unhealthy fats and increase the intake of healthier fats, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
The modified fat diet typically involves replacing high-fat animal products, such as meat and dairy, with plant-based alternatives, such as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.
It may also involve limiting the intake of processed foods, which can be high in unhealthy fats and other unhealthy ingredients.
The Ornish diet is a low-fat, vegetarian dietary program that was developed by Dr. Dean Ornish in the 1990s.
It is based on the idea that a diet that is low in fat and high in plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, can help prevent and even reverse chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
The Ornish diet is also accompanied by a lifestyle program that includes regular exercise, stress management techniques, and social support.
This comprehensive approach is aimed at promoting overall health and well-being.
The Pritikin diet is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate, and plant-based dietary program that was developed by Nathan Pritikin in the 1970s.
It is based on the idea that a diet that is low in fat and high in complex carbohydrates, fiber, and plant-based foods, can help prevent and even reverse chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
The Pritikin diet emphasizes the consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and lean proteins, such as fish and poultry, while limiting the intake of red meat, high-fat dairy products, and processed foods.
The diet also encourages regular exercise and stress management techniques.
The research was published in the BMJ and was conducted by Giorgio Karam et al.
Copyright © 2023 Scientific Diet. All rights reserved.