Gastric cancer is a significant global health concern, and understanding its risk factors is crucial for prevention and early intervention.
Previous meta-analyses have examined the association between fruit and vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk.
However, since the release of those analyses, new studies have been published, necessitating an update to provide more comprehensive and accurate insights.
To investigate the associations between fruit and vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk, a thorough search was conducted in various online databases.
A total of 17 articles, comprising 18 prospective studies and a participant pool of 1,527,995 individuals aged between 18 and 90 years, were included in this updated meta-analysis.
Over follow-up periods ranging from 4.5 to 21 years, 8,477 cases of gastric cancer were identified.
The findings revealed noteworthy associations between fruit and vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk.
Total Fruit Intake
A higher intake of total fruit was linked to a reduced risk of gastric cancer.
The meta-analysis showed a relative risk (RR) of 0.87, indicating a 13% lower risk of gastric cancer for individuals with higher fruit intake.
The 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 0.80 to 0.94, and the statistical heterogeneity (I²) was 0%, suggesting low variability across the included studies.
Total Fruit and Vegetable Intake
The analysis also found that higher intake of both fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower risk of gastric cancer. The RR was 0.75, indicating a 25% lower risk, with a 95% CI ranging from 0.61 to 0.93.
However, there was moderate heterogeneity (I² = 55.2%) among the studies, indicating some variability in the findings.
Total Vegetable Intake
When considering total vegetable intake alone, a significant inverse association was observed in studies that controlled their analysis for energy intake.
This suggests that higher vegetable intake, independent of energy intake, is associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer.
However, it’s important to note that the association was not consistently observed across all studies.
By conducting a linear dose-response analysis, researchers evaluated the relationship between incremental increases in fruit and vegetable intake and the corresponding changes in gastric cancer risk.
The results indicated that each 100 g/day increase in total fruit intake was associated with a 5% lower risk of gastric cancer.
Similarly, each 200 g/day increase in total fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a 6% lower risk of gastric cancer.
This updated meta-analysis reaffirms the protective association between fruit and vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk.
Higher intake of total fruit and total fruit and vegetable was consistently associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer.
These findings emphasize the importance of incorporating fruits and vegetables into our diets as part of a comprehensive approach to prevent gastric cancer.
The research was published in Frontiers in Nutrition.
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