Foods to support thyroid health

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Your thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in your neck, but it plays a massive role in your overall health.

It produces hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism, energy levels, and body temperature. Thyroid problems, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, can disrupt these functions.

Fortunately, the foods you eat can influence your thyroid’s well-being. In this review, we’ll explore how specific dietary choices can support thyroid health.

Understanding Thyroid Function

Before delving into the foods that benefit your thyroid, it’s essential to understand its function. Your thyroid gland produces two primary hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

These hormones influence your body’s metabolism, affecting how you burn calories and produce energy. An optimally functioning thyroid helps maintain a healthy weight, energy levels, and more.

Nutrients for Thyroid Health

Several essential nutrients support thyroid function:

Iodine: Iodine is a key component of thyroid hormones. It’s crucial for your thyroid to have enough iodine to produce these hormones. However, excessive iodine can also harm your thyroid, so it’s essential to strike the right balance.

Selenium: Selenium is an essential mineral that helps convert T4 (inactive thyroid hormone) into T3 (active thyroid hormone). This conversion is critical for thyroid function.

Tyrosine: Tyrosine is an amino acid that combines with iodine to create thyroid hormones. Adequate tyrosine levels are essential for hormone production.

Vitamins: Vitamins like vitamin D and vitamin A play roles in thyroid function. Vitamin D helps your body utilize thyroid hormones, while vitamin A supports the production of these hormones.

Iron: Iron is necessary for the creation of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen in your blood. Adequate oxygen supply to the thyroid gland ensures proper hormone production.

Foods for Thyroid Health

Iodine-Rich Foods: Seafood like fish and seaweed are excellent sources of iodine. If you’re not a seafood lover, iodized salt can also provide the necessary iodine. Just remember to use it in moderation.

Selenium-Containing Foods: Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, and whole grains are rich in selenium. Eating a balanced diet that includes these foods can help support thyroid function.

Tyrosine Sources: Lean meats, dairy products, and legumes contain tyrosine. Including these in your diet can help ensure adequate tyrosine levels for hormone production.

Vitamin D and A: Fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, and cod liver oil are excellent sources of both vitamin D and vitamin A. Additionally, dairy products and fortified cereals can contribute to your vitamin intake.

Iron-Rich Foods: Lean meats, poultry, beans, and lentils are good sources of iron. Combining iron-rich foods with vitamin C-rich foods (like citrus fruits) can enhance iron absorption.

Research Evidence

Several studies have explored the relationship between specific nutrients and thyroid health:

Iodine and Hypothyroidism: Iodine deficiency can lead to hypothyroidism. A study published in the “Journal of Nutrition” found that iodine supplementation improved thyroid function in iodine-deficient individuals.

Selenium and Thyroid Function: A review published in “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” concluded that selenium supplementation improved thyroid function in individuals with autoimmune thyroid conditions.

Vitamin D and Thyroid Health: Research in “The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism” suggests that vitamin D supplementation may improve thyroid function in individuals with autoimmune thyroid diseases.


Your thyroid’s health is closely tied to your overall well-being, and the foods you eat can significantly influence it.

Incorporating iodine-rich foods, selenium-containing sources, tyrosine-containing foods, and those rich in vitamins and iron into your diet can help support thyroid function.

However, it’s essential to maintain a balanced diet and consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian if you have specific thyroid concerns or conditions.

By nourishing your thyroid, you can help ensure it continues to regulate your body’s vital functions effectively.

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