High-fat diet sparks early inflammation in the brain, posing potential risk for cognitive disorders

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A recent study from Michigan Medicine revealed that a high-fat diet triggers an early inflammatory response in the brains of mice through an immune pathway connected with diabetes and neurological diseases.

This finding suggests a potential connection between metabolic dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

The Inflammation Igniter

In the study, the researchers investigated the activation of the cGAS/STING immune pathway in a high-fat diet mouse model predisposed to prediabetes and cognitive impairment or dementia.

Despite not detecting early changes in cognition, the results demonstrated insulin resistance and the inflammatory activation of cGAS/STING and the microglia (the brain’s immune cells) within three days of feeding.

The Role of cGAS/STING Pathway

While there is evidence pointing to the cGAS/STING pathway’s role in obesity and diabetes—conditions that heighten the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia—its role in the brain had not been previously studied.

This pathway contributes to an early surge of immune response in the microglia, which play a vital role in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias.

If the microglia in the hippocampus are activated under high-fat diet conditions, this may induce inflammation and degeneration in the nervous system and lead to eventual cognitive impairment or dementia.

A New Approach to Dementia?

Previous research has established a strong link between obesity, diabetes, and the onset of dementia and other neurological diseases.

According to the team, further investigation is needed to determine if inhibiting the cGAS/STING pathway could provide a viable treatment option for reversing or preventing the harmful changes in the brains of individuals who develop cognitive impairment or dementias.

An Ounce of Prevention

If you’re interested in maintaining your brain health, consider studies on how the Mediterranean diet could help protect your brain and how scientists are looking for ways to reverse Alzheimer’s disease.

Also, recent studies have linked Vitamin D deficiency to a higher risk of dementia, and certain antioxidants could help reduce dementia risk.

This pivotal research was conducted by Sarah Elzinga and her team, and it was published in the Frontiers in Immunology journal.

The findings underscore the significance of a healthy diet not just for general health, but also for the prevention of cognitive disorders.

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