The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern known for its positive impact on cardiometabolic risk factors.
It emphasizes the consumption of plant-based foods, uses olive oil as the primary fat source, includes moderate amounts of fish, dairy products, and poultry, limits red and processed meat, and allows for moderate wine consumption.
This diet has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association for improving glycemic control and reducing cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Reduced Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Prospective studies have shown that following a Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23% reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
This diet’s emphasis on high-quality foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, provides essential nutrients, fiber, and antioxidants.
These components contribute to reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, key factors in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes.
Improved Blood Sugar Control
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet can lower glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) by 0.30-0.47% in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
By favorably influencing insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and endothelial function, the diet helps regulate glucose-insulin homeostasis.
This effect is beneficial for managing blood sugar levels and improving overall glycemic control.
Cardiovascular Risk Reduction
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 28-30% reduced risk of cardiovascular events.
The inclusion of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, promotes a healthy lipid profile by increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol levels while reducing harmful LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.
Consuming moderate amounts of fish, which are high in omega-3 fatty acids, also contributes to cardiovascular health and reduces the risk of adverse events.
Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidative Effects
The Mediterranean diet’s cardiometabolic benefits can be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.
By consuming high-quality foods, the activation of the innate immune system is reduced, leading to decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
This shift towards an anti-inflammatory environment improves insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and enhances endothelial function, acting as a protective barrier against metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis.
The Mediterranean diet offers a comprehensive approach to managing type 2 diabetes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors.
Its emphasis on plant-based foods, olive oil, fish, and moderate wine consumption provides essential nutrients, antioxidants, and beneficial fats.
By promoting a healthier body weight, improving lipid profiles, regulating blood pressure, and enhancing glucose-insulin homeostasis, this dietary pattern positively impacts cardiometabolic health.
Considering its numerous benefits, adopting the Mediterranean diet can be a valuable strategy for individuals with type 2 diabetes aiming to improve their overall well-being and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.
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